Hemiplegia vs. Hemiparesis
Mar 28, 2019
Hemiplegia vs. Hemiparesis

Do you ever get mixed up trying to distinguish hemiplegia from hemiparesis? With all of the confusing stroke terminology out there, it's hard to tell the difference.

man-with-walker

Hemiplegia and hemiparesis may seem very similar because hemiplegia and hemiparesis have the same underlying symptoms. However, these terms have slightly different meanings.

In this article, we'll break down the difference between hemiplegia and hemiparesis, describe how to manage hemiplegic or hemiparetic arm weakness, and review the long-term outcomes of each condition.


Hemiplegia and Hemiparesis

Definitions of Hemiplegia and Hemiparesis

How can one tell the differences between hemiparesis and hemiplegia? Both conditions may be accompanied by symptoms including loss of movement, loss of sensation, abnormal muscle tone (hyper or hypotonicity), and loss of postural control. One-sided weakness from hemiparesis or hemiplegia may span from the head (including facial muscles), through the trunk and the arm, and down to the legs. These can conditions even cause weakness on muscles inside of the body!

Ultimately, there is a distinction between the two terms:

Hemiparesis
Hemiparesis indicates a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness on one side of the body.


Hemiplegia
Hemiplegia indicates a severe or complete loss of movement function on one side of the body.


Although these terms are similar and often used synonymously, hemiparesis relates to a milder form of one-sided weakness than hemiplegia. Hopefully that begins to clear things up!

Causes

Hemiplegia and hemiparesis often have the same causes; however, use of one term or the other depends on the severity of muscle weakness and dysfunction resulting from central nervous system (brain or spinal cord) injury.

Brain damage can disrupt many functions, including movement control, sensation, coordination, and thinking skills. Damage may alter or destroy the brain's underlying neural pathways, the structures responsible for sending messages related to controlling the rest of the body. Abnormalities in brain areas responsible for controlling movement and muscle tone are primarily responsible for causing hemiparesis or hemiplegia.


Hemiparesis or hemiplegia may occur as a result of the following diagnoses:

  • Stroke: Stroke is one of the most common causes of one-sided bodily weakness. The severity of muscle weakness that you experience can depend on the size and location damage within the brain

  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI): A TBI can cause permanent brain damage. If the trauma only affects one side of the brain, hemiplegia can result on the opposite side of the body. Common causes of trauma include car accidents, falls, or blows to the head.

  • Spinal cord injury (SCI): SCI has many presentations. Depending on where the spinal cord was damaged, resultant weakness may affect only one side of the body.

  • Brain Tumors: Brain tumors can lead to a variety of physical problems including hemiplegia. Symptoms of hemiplegia may get worse as the tumor grows and invades brain areas that control movement.

  • Additional Causes: Multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)


Symptoms

Hemiplegia or hemiparesis may present differently from person to person. Common symptoms of these conditions include:

  • Muscle weakness wasting, or atrophy

  • Loss of coordination lack of gross or fine motor skills resulting in difficulties sitting, standing, walking, or reaching

  • Loss of normal muscle tone resulting in stiffness, spasticity, flaccidity

  • Loss of sensation difficulty detecting texture, temperature, touch, or pain


Management

There are many ways to manage symptoms of one-sided weakness from hemiplegia or hemiparesis. Common treatment approaches include remediating physical function by strengthening muscles and restoring lost skills or compensating for independent function using supportive devices.


Rehabilitation Treatment
The concept of neuroplasticity, which states that the body can adapt to the environment and change even after the brain is damaged, suggests that it is possible to improve hemiplegic symptoms through rehabilitation. High-frequency and high repetition strengthening exercise and functional task training may help reduce weakness.

Equipment/devices
Assistive devices are used to enable independent functioning by supplementing skills that the user cannot perform independently.

Common assistive devices used to make up for one-sided weakness include:

  • Mobility aids: wheelchair, walker, cane
  • Meal aids: universal cuff, built-up utensils, suction cup plates, high wall plates, no-slip mats
  • Dressing aids: reacher, sock aid, elastic shoelaces, long shoehorn
  • Bath accessories: shower chair, tub bench, raised toilet seat, grab bars, long-handled sponge
  • Bowel and bladder aids: catheter equipment, bowel program equipment
  • Splints and braces for the arm or leg

Mental health management
A significant medical condition associated with reduced physical functioning, daily routine changes, or increased dependency on others can contribute to feelings of hopelesness or depression. It is recommended that survivors partake in psychological counseling to provide support, promote appropriate adjustment to disability, and instill coping mechanisms and hope. Always ask your primary doctor about mental health resources or a referral to a counselor in the event that you are struggling.

a-person-in-a-wheelchair-holding-hands


Prognosis

What is the prognosis for hemiparesis or hemiplegia?

The prognoses of hemiplegia and hemiparesis are difficult to predict because symptoms may change over time. Each person is different in how they recover from brain, spinal cord, or nerve damage due to variables like age, current health, and other underlying factors. Some will recover quickly with no treatment while others will only see minor improvements even with extensive therapy.

However, even after damage, nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord show capability to rewire and adapt to regain lost functions. It is possible for older nerve pathways to heal and resume their original function or for different, undamaged areas to perform the functions of the damaged area instead.

In order to promote neuroplastic changes for improved physical functioning, health management, rehabilitation, and therapeutic activities and exercise are vital. It helps to have a supportive medical team to guide you throughout the process.



Conclusion
As you come to understand the best options for you or a loved one’s rehab journey, don’t miss the opportunity to check out Neofect Home Rehab Solutions. Neofect Home Rehab products are clinically proven to improve functionality of hand and arm with fun and engaging activities that you can do in the comfort of your home.
To learn more, call (888) 623-8984 or email info@neofect.com.


Michael Eustace: A Vietnam Veteran and Stroke Survivor

Neofect_user

I went to move and I couldn’t. I moved forward and slid right onto the floor. I started to get a little bit better and then I had another stroke. And then I had problems with my heart and wound up having 3 strokes and 1 heart attack.

I couldn’t move my arm, I couldn’t move my hand, I couldn’t do anything. At that point I started to try to get better.

They kept saying, “What is your goal?”. I said my goal is to get up and walk again. My goal is to get up and use my hand.

For me it was like it opened up a world of things that I could do with my hand, and get more mobility, because it motivates you to do more. You don’t appreciate things that you do before that you can’t do now.

"If it wasn’t for Neofect, I’d probably never bend my hand the way it is now."

To learn more about Neofect smart rehab devices, call (888) 623-8984 or email info@neofect.com.


About Neofect

Why we exist

We strive to inspire people everywhere to live the best life they can because we believe that everyone has the right to a happy life.

No matter who you are, You have the right to lead your life.
No matter what kind of challenges you may face, You still deserve to be the hero of your own life. You deserve to be happy.

We Inspire hope. We Inspire you.


Our philosophy
Everyone has their own goals in life, but the ultimate goal is the same: “To live a happy life

Neofect believes that a happy life begins with finding purpose and is achieved through active participation and engagement in the things we love.

However, unforeseen circumstances may disrupt your happiness. Illness, aging, and accidents are a part of life.

It is not uncommon to feel discouraged or defeated when met with these obstacles.
Neofect exists for those who strive for the best life they can possibly live.

Using breakthrough research and innovative technology, we can help you rediscover your purpose and live your best life.

Let us help you live your life on your own terms. You deserve it.

Call us at (888) 623-8984 or email us at info@neofect.com to start rehabilitating smarter with Neofect today.

WRITTEN BY

  • Ashley Gatewood, OTR/L
    Ashley is an occupational therapist and health writer based out of Richmond, VA. Ashley has seven years of experience across multiple practice settings and is currently working in adult home health.
  • June Lee
    Clinical Manager / Physical Therapist
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